Posts Tagged: Netziv


Parshat Chukat records the tragic story of Mei Meriva. Moshe’s sister, Miriam, dies, and with her passing, Bnei Yisrael’s miraculous water supply (a well which sustained them in Miriam’s merit) vanishes. The nation complains for water; Hashem instructs Moshe what to do; Moshe deviates slightly, and he is severely punished. 

Until this point, whenever Bnei Yisrael complained, they were answered in one of two ways: Either Hashem granted their wish, or they were punished. Here, Hashem asks Moshe and Aharon to gather the people and speak to a rock. Instead Moshe hits the rock (twice) and Hashem rebukes Moshe and Aharon for this reaction, and for not having faith in Him. Rashi on the spot says that were it not for this misstep by Moshe, he would have been able to enter the land of Israel. Instead, Moshe is punished, and denied entry into the Land.

The Netziv has a very interesting explanation for the “crime” and punishment involved in this episode of Mei Meriva.
In the Netziv’s hakdama to Sefer Bamidbar, he writes that the main theme in Bamidbar is the transition from Bnei Yisrael’s supernatural relationship with G-d, to a relationship more grounded in the natural order. From the time Moshe confronted Paroh in Egypt, until the 40th year in the desert, Bnei Yisrael witnessed and were sustained by the most incredible miracles ever performed. To use the Netziv’s poetic words, Bnei Yisrael went from walking “b’midat tiferet” in the desert, until the 40th year when it began to change into a more natural interaction with Hashem – “bderech heteva b’sitrei hashgachat malchut shamayim.”

As Bnei Yisrael made their way toward Eretz Yisrael, their relationship would start to change. The desert became a training ground for the new reality that awaited them in their own land – a life more in line with a natural existence.

The Netziv sees Moshe’s misstep within this broader context of Sefer Bamidbar: Moshe was the ultimate agent of and conduit to Hashem. With the passing of Miriam and the disappearance of their supernatural water source, Bnei Yisrael stood poised to learn a pivotal lesson. Moshe – Moshe Rabbeinu – was supposed to teach that lesson. He was directed to teach the nation that their physical survival – something as basic as drinkable water – would hinge on more than one-sided, overt miracles. In a situation of distress and crisis, they would need to rely on the belief in their hearts and the power of words on their lips.
Moshe received specific instructions – to take the staff with which all of the miracles until this point had been performed, but not use it. Hold the symbol of the supernatural, but do not use it. Instead, begin to teach the People the power of speech and the power of prayer. Show them that as individuals and as a collective nation, they have the ability to have a natural relationship with Hashem through teffila. The Netziv says, that Hashem’s method of punishment, of not allowing Moshe entry to the Land, was a midah k’negged midah – because Moshe didn’t use the opportunity he was given to teach Bnei Yisrael about how farmers, removed from the Dor HaMidbar, would one day have to react when faced with drought in Eretz Yisrael (i.e. through belief and prayer), Moshe demonstrated that he was not the proper leader for the nation in Eretz Yisrael.
In Sefer Devarim (32:51) Hashem describes the actions that Moshe took in Parshat Chukat:
עַל אֲשֶׁר מְעַלְתֶּם בִּי בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּמֵי-מְרִיבַת קָדֵשׁ מִדְבַּר-צִן עַל אֲשֶׁר לֹא קִדַּשְׁתֶּם אוֹתִי בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל

(1) “ma’altem bi” you trespassed against Me”; and (b) “asher lo kidashtem Oti” = you did not sanctify Me.

By hitting the rock, Moshe “misappropriated” the miracle of water being brought forth. The purpose of the episode was to teach the people to pray and inculcate a deeper feeling of emunah in Hashem during trying times. Instead, Moshe “trespassed” the miracle – using it for an unintended purpose – and gave the impression that it was his own, great prophetic stature that produced the desired results. Moshe misappropriated the emunah of the nation.
Indeed, we are supposed to find that proper mixture of investment of time and human effort, on the one hand, with belief and dependence on Hashem, on the other. We put our heads down and work as hard as we can, yet still remain cognizant that we must lift our heads to the heavens and pray for rain, and pray that Hashem will steer our efforts toward success.
The Land of Israel is not like Egypt. There are no overflowing rivers to sustain life. All of its water – its life-source – comes from above: Devarim (11:10-12):

“For the land, which you enter to possess, is not as the land of Egypt, from where you came out…But the land, which you are going over to possess, is a land of hills and valleys, and drinks water from the rain of the skies; A land which Hashem your G-d cares for; the eyes of Hashem your God are always upon it, from the beginning of the year to the end of the year.”

We are a nation that believes in human effort coupled with Divine oversight, in a land that demands both.
Tragically, the greatest eved Hashem of all time missed just one opportunity to teach emunah in the way Hashem had prescribed, and he paid the ultimate price.
We no longer have a Moshe, or a miracle-performing staff. Prophets and staffs will not provide us sustenance, protect us from our enemies, win our battles, or “bring back our boys”. If only…
But the efforts of Chayalei Tzahal, and the outpouring of prayers from Jews all over the world for the safe return of Yaakov Naftali ben Rachel Devora, Gilad Michael ben Bat-Galim. and Eyal ben Iris Teshurah, is how we are meant to respond in periods of hardship.

The lesson meant to be taught to Bnei Yisrael in the desert, was the beginning of what has been taught throughout the generations to this day – that through our hard work, resilient effort, unwavering emunah and heartfelt prayer, we will achieve our goals and bring the ultimate Redemption.



The final psukim of Parshat Pekudei (and therefore Sefer Shmot) record:

לו  וּבְהֵעָלוֹת הֶעָנָן מֵעַל הַמִּשְׁכָּן יִסְעוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּכֹל מַסְעֵיהֶם. 36 And whenever the cloud was taken up from over the tabernacle, the children of Israel went onward, throughout all their journeys.
לז  וְאִם לֹא יֵעָלֶה הֶעָנָן וְלֹא יִסְעוּ עַד-יוֹם הֵעָלֹתוֹ. 37 But if the cloud was not taken up, then they journeyed not till the day that it was taken up.
לח  כִּי עֲנַן ה’ עַל הַמִּשְׁכָּן יוֹמָם וְאֵשׁ תִּהְיֶה לַיְלָה בּוֹ לְעֵינֵי כָל בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּכָל מַסְעֵיהֶם. 38 For the cloud of the LORD was upon the tabernacle by day, and there was fire therein by night, in the sight of all the house of Israel, throughout all their journeys.
The Netziv comments that the Annan (Heavenly Cloud) in the daytime and the fiery pillar at night were the same “object”, so to speak. There were not two separate divine occurrences, rather at night the cloud would simply light up as a consuming fire, and in the morning the fire would disappear and the cloud would remain.
He learns this from 2 places: (1) the Torah tells us in passuk 36 that the cloud would only rise when it was time for Bnei Yisrael to travel to their next destination. If the cloud were replaced by the fire every night, then it would have to move from its spot, and it only did so when it was time to embark to the next location. Bnei Yisrael, however, didn’t travel every night! Thus, it must be that the cloud stayed in place every night and became a large fiery pillar. (2) Additionally, he quotes from later in the Torah, in Bamidbar 9:15-16, which describes how the Annan and Amud/Mar’eh Aish functioned:
טו  וּבְיוֹם, הָקִים אֶת-הַמִּשְׁכָּן, כִּסָּה הֶעָנָן אֶת-הַמִּשְׁכָּן, לְאֹהֶל הָעֵדֻת; וּבָעֶרֶב יִהְיֶה עַל-הַמִּשְׁכָּן, כְּמַרְאֵה-אֵשׁ–עַד-בֹּקֶר. 15 And on the day that the tabernacle was reared up the cloud covered the tabernacle, even the tent of the testimony; and at evening there was upon the tabernacle as it were the appearance of fire, until morning.
טז  כֵּן יִהְיֶה תָמִיד, הֶעָנָן יְכַסֶּנּוּ; וּמַרְאֵה-אֵש לָיְלָה. 16 So it was always: the cloud covered it, and the appearance of fire by night.
יז  וּלְפִי הֵעָלוֹת הֶעָנָן, מֵעַל הָאֹהֶל–וְאַחֲרֵי כֵן, יִסְעוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל; וּבִמְקוֹם, אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכָּן-שָׁם הֶעָנָן–שָׁם יַחֲנוּ, בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. 17 And whenever the cloud was taken up from over the Tent, then after that the children of Israel journeyed; and in the place where the cloud abode, there the children of Israel encamped.

The Netziv doesn’t say this explicitly, (so this could be entirely incorrect) but I believe that there is an underlying message being conveyed here. The protective cloud and the intense flame were not just from the same source (Hashem – the source of everything), but it was exactly the same “object”. At times the Mishhkan was covered by a cloud and other times by fire. The Midrash in Pekudei notes that Bnei Yisrael rejoiced when they saw the cloud and were in fear of the consuming flame in the evening. At times we feel Hashem’s love and benevolence; and then there are times, lo aleinu, when we feel scared, confused and engulfed by flames. It is the same Hashem who controls both.

The last 2 words of the Sefer, tell us that this Annan / Aish was with Bnei Yisrael “bCHOL mah’seihem” = in ALL their journeys. The Netziv points out from the Torah’s use of KOL that Hashem was with them not just for the travels initiated by Hashem, but through all their travels and sojourns; through the positive journeys and encampments and the negative ones, Hashem was with them. Says the Netziv, at every stop the purpose of the Annan / Aish was fully intact and “tamid”.

The perpetual state of arriving in a place and not knowing the duration of the stay and not knowing the next destination, was probably very unsettling. Indeed, this has been the case throughout Jewish History; wherever we settled, we never knew for how long we would stay and whenever we were expelled, we never knew how long it would take before we would land on safe shores. In a weak attempt to relate, l’havdil, I imagine packing a suitcase and being told to go from city to city, hotel to hotel, on a moment’s notice, not knowing if I should unpack my suitcase at each location or where I was going next. The major difference (among many), however, is that Bnei Yisrael had a promise from Hashem that they would eventually be led into Eretz Yisrael. As it states in Yirmiyahu, לֶכְתֵּךְ אַחֲרַי בַּמִּדְבָּר בְּאֶרֶץ לֹא זְרוּעָה
While it may have felt like wandering, they had a destination. The appearance of the cloud every morning and the guiding nature of the cloud when it was time to travel, was likely a very comforting tool employed by Hashem for Bnei Yisrael.
We continue to have this promise from Hashem with the promise of the ultimate Geulah.

לְהַגִּיד בַּבֹּקֶר חַסְדֶּךָ וֶאֱמוּנָתְךָ בַּלֵּילוֹת
בָּעֶרֶב יָלִין בֶּכִי וְלַבֹּקֶר רִנָּה

The night can be dark and frightening, but, b’ezras Hashem, we can maintain emunah at night and find comfort in the morning.

כִּי עֲנַן ה’ עַל הַמִּשְׁכָּן יוֹמָם וְאֵשׁ תִּהְיֶה לַיְלָה בּוֹ לְעֵינֵי כָל בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּכָל מַסְעֵיהֶם
This final passuk of Sefer Shemot contains promises of protection, through the good and the bad, on all journeys. Perhaps with this in mind, we can feel the permanence of our nation’s existence in this world — hence the special usage of Beit Yisrael”, instead of the more ubiquitous, “Bnei Yisrael”. With such emunah, we can feel we are a more permanent and established house of Israel; a very fitting conclusion to the Sefer Ha’Geula, and a message for all generations as we wait for Bi’as HaMashiach, b’mehaira b’yamienu.